Lesson 18 Jangan..... (Don't.....)
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A second reading (by Michelle Nor Ismat, a native speaker)
Jangan ketawa. Ini bukan lucu. (= Don't laugh. This is not at all funny.)
The opposite of ketawa is menangis as in this example:
Mengapa dia menangis? Dia menangis kerana jatuh. (=Why is he crying? He is crying because he fell)
For those who want to know more:
Jangan merokok di sini is the same as Jangan hisap rokok di sini. = Don't smoke (cigarettes) here.
The usual term in public places where smoking is not allowed is: Dilarang merokok. (Smoking is forbidden.)
Anda tidak boleh hisap rokok di sini. = You cannot smoke (cigarettes) here.
In Jangan lari, nanti jatuh (Don't run or you will fall) the word nanti is used to indicate the future tense. By itself the word nanti usually means "to wait" as in Nanti sekejap (or Tunggu sekejap).
Note: In order to make a command sound less of a command, we add ya at the end of a phrase starting with Jangan. Thus Jangan bising ya, dia sedang tidur is not a harsh command not to make noise but a gentle request equivalent to "Please do not make any noise as he is sleeping".
sedang is one of a number of "verb modifiers" present in Bahasa Malaysia. Common verb modifiers are:
(i) sudah, telah and pernah to indicate an action that has happened in the past
(ii) akan, kelak, nanti and mungkin to indicate something that will take place in the future and
(iii) sedang, tengah and masih to indicate an action that is happening at the time the speaker makes his remark.
A common verb: mari (= to come)
I don't think I have introduced this very common verb yet. Please note that when you say "Come here" in Malay it is simply Mari sini and not Mari di sini while "Go there" is Pergi ke sana though colloquially it is just Pergi sana without the preposition. But to the question Di mana? you must always answer with Di sini or Di sana. Thus the sentence "Your car key is over there" is translated as Kunci kereta anda ada di sana.
By the way the verb mari is also used when you are inviting someone to do something eg. Mari, sila makan (Come, please eat) or Mari, sila duduk. (Come, please sit). Of course you can just say Sila duduk or Sila makan, and if you are pointing to the food on the table you can just say Silakan.
Note that when di is used as a preposition eg. di sana (over there), di rumah (at home) or di atas (on top), it is a word in its own right and is therefore not joined to the word that comes after it. But when di is part of a verb (normally to make it passive as below) then it is joined to it. Thus:
(see illustration) Dia telah digigit oleh anjing (= He was bitten by a dog). You will remember from Lesson 9 that oleh means "by" (in passive sentences).
The Malay sentence above is more to help the English speaker understand its construction because actually oleh is often left out in such a sentence so it is perfectly correct in Malay to say Dia telah digigit anjing (literally "He was bitten a dog").